Graduation Year


Document Type

Honors Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts



Program or Major


Faculty Advisor

Nicole A. Pantano


Active student responding, Guided notes, Student response systems, Choral responding, College students


Active student responding (ASR) is a collection of common teaching strategies used by educators that are recognized to increase the accomplishments and opportunities of students in a variety of ways. Previous research has assessed the role of active student responding in kindergarten through high school classrooms; however, no comprehensive literature review has assessed the effectiveness of ASR with post-secondary education classrooms (i.e., undergraduate and graduate students). This review assessed the effectiveness of four active student responding systems (e.g., guided notes, student response systems, response cards, and choral responding) on activity grade, test scores, class grade, grade point average, and student engagement. This review also assessed the overall quality of each article using quality indicators as done in Common et al. (2020). Overall, research supports the effectiveness of ASR in post-secondary education, but the quality of this research varied greatly across these qualitative measures.