Graduation Year


Document Type

Honors Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts


Biological and Physical Sciences

Program or Major

Biotechnology and Molecular Biology

Faculty Advisor

Anthony Sacino


While there are other treatments that have shown a reduction in phantom limb pain (PLP), such as acupuncture, mirror therapy and pharmaceuticals were focused on in this literature review. Mirror therapy is one of the most common treatments for PLP, and has shown to consistently cause a decrease in PLP. Morphine is widely prescribed and used for the treatment of pain, and studies have shown its possible efficacy for the treatment of PLP. Gabapentin is another pharmaceutical often used for the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain, and has recently been studied in regards to the treatment of PLP. While there are other pharmaceuticals that have been used for the treatment of PLP, such as ketamine and lidocaine, morphine and gabapentin were examined in this literature review (Mayo Clinic, 2021).

Studies were examined from the 1990s through 2021, and used the Visual Analogue Scale and the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. The studies were compared based on the trends reported for the decrease of PLP, as well as the percent of participants that reported a decrease in PLP.