Document Type

Working Paper

Publication Date


Published In

Political Economy Research Institute: Working Paper Series


Labor, Gender, Punjab


Even as the literature on work in the Global South acknowledges the importance of forms of non-waged work, it has not sufficiently incorporated consideration of the labor of social reproduction. We propose understanding work through four conceptual dyads: waged productive labor, non-waged productive labor, waged reproductive labor, and non-waged reproductive labor. Through an in-depth description of three specific cases from a Time Use Survey we conducted in rural Punjab, India, we argue not only that all four dyads are required to encompass the world of work, but that this more expansive conceptualization can help us produce richer analyses of the intersections of class, caste and gender.

Grant Information

We gratefully acknowledge helpful comments and suggestions from Vamsi Vakulabharanam and Madhura Swaminathan. We also acknowledge funding for our primary surveys provided by the University of Missouri-Kansas City and a Faculty Development Grant from the University of Rhode Island.

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