Document Type


Publication Date


Published In

The Journal of Consumer Affairs


COVID-19, Perceived Marketplace Influence (PMI), Compliance with public health recommendations


Mask-wearing has been one of the most prominent, conflicted, and deeply divided issues in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. Across two studies, we seek to understand how beliefs and behaviors around mask-wearing are associated with the relationship between anxiety about the coronavirus and feelings of control over one’s health outcomes during the pandemic. In Study 1, we find that beliefs in the response efficacy of mask-wearing moderate the relationship between anxiety and control. Study 2 extends these results by investigating the underlying process. Specifically, we find that the relationship between anxiety and control is mediated by self-reported mask-wearing behavior and that the relationship between anxiety and mask-wearing behavior is moderated by consumers’ perceived marketplace influence. These findings have important public policy and marketing implications in the context of physical, emotional, and economic well-being.




This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Schneider, A.B. and Leonard, B. (2021). From anxiety to control: Mask-wearing, perceived marketplace influence, and emotional well-being during the Covid-19 pandemic. The Journal of Consumer Affairs, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited.


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Available for download on Sunday, September 17, 2023